Gut health: what does it really mean?
Scientists have discovered that the trillions of bacteria in our gastrointestinal tract don’t just process food. These bacteria help our body to maintain its equilibrium and achieve well-being. But what does it mean to have good gut health? What does it feel like and what can we do to improve gut health?
What is the gut microbiome?
The “gut microbiome” refers to the trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms in our digestive system. Each individual has a unique microbiome, with the diversity and abundance of gut flora within this influencing our general health. Often, a reduced diversity and profusion in gut flora can be seen in people with certain conditions such as IBS, obesity and depression. Everything we eat and drink influences our delicate internal gut ecosystem. How we manage stress, exercise, medications we use and even our genetics can have an impact. Some key areas affected by our gut health include:
- Immunity – the gut microbiome plays a role in regulating the immune system. Alterations in gut bacteria can lead to autoimmune disorders and raised levels of inflammation.
- Brain health – the gut microbiome can affect brain function. Gut cells and the microbiome produce neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA which influence mood.
- Nutrient absorption – the gut microbiome is crucial for the digestion and utilisation of nutrients. Macronutrients and micronutrients, like key B vitamins, are important producers of energy. They also regulate metabolism and mood.
How to spot an unhealthy gut
- Upset stomach – processing food and eliminating waste challenge an unhealthy gut. Symptoms include excessive flatulence, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
- Unintentional weight changes – an unhealthy gut impairs regulation of blood sugar, absorption of nutrients and storage of fat, which may result in unintentional weight changes in some individuals.
- Skin irritation – inflammation of the gut may cause ‘leaking’ of certain proteins which can irritate the skin and contribute to conditions like eczema.
6 ways to improve your gut health
Here are six ways to get those good bacteria thriving:
- Reduce stress levels – stress causes the digestive process to slow or be disrupted. This leads to maldigestion of foods prompting undesirable bacteria overgrowth.
- Limit alcohol intake – alcohol changes the ratio between beneficial bacteria (such as lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) and pathogenic bacteria (such as bacillus spp).
- Stay physically active – exercise boosts the level of gut microbes producing a substance called butyrate. Many health benefits follow, from producing satiety hormones that curb hunger, to promoting gut motility.
- Eat insoluble and soluble fibre to promote the growth of ‘good’ gut bacteria. Insoluble fibre provides bulk to stools. Gut bacteria ferment soluble fibres. Both promote a healthy gut.
- Reduce sugar intake – a diet high in processed sugar risks inflammation, decreasing the amount of ‘good’ gut bacteria.
- Eat a rainbow of fruit and vegetables daily – colourful fruit and vegetables provide polyphenols. They improve gut health, stimulating abundant probiotic gut microbiota.
It is important to speak to a nutritionist or dietician before making any significant changes to your diet. If you are experiencing little relief from your gut issues, then it may be important to speak to your doctor. A specialist diagnosis could help treat an underlying condition.
Want to know more about gut health?
How do you support your gut health? Comment below and let us know…
This page was published 25 August 2020.
Tracey Randell is a qualified nutritionist (MBANT) and Institute for Functional Medicine practitioner (Dip BCNH, IFMCP, CNHC). She lectures at the nutrition college where she trained on various subjects including IBS, coeliac disease, the gut-brain axis and food intolerances. She also offers post graduate training to other healthcare professionals.
All health content on terms and conditions for more information.is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other health care professional. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact your local health care provider. See our website